Arabica and Robusta are two of the three varieties of the coffee plant. Their full names are coffee Arabica and coffee Canephora respectively. These two variants are the most well known used in coffee production and consumption. Arabica and Robusta are also labels for the coffee beans that each respective variety produces.
Between the two varieties, Arabica is the most preferred. It has a wide range of taste (from sweet to tangy flavors) and smells sweet and fruity when roasted.
On the other hand, Robusta exemplifies the direct opposite of Arabica. Robusta usually has a neutral to bitter taste. When roasted, the Robusta beans smell like peanuts.
Robusta plants yield more coffee beans and a good product for low-cost production. The percentage of caffeine in Robusta is much higher compared to Arabica.
In contrast, Robusta is not the variety in demand in the coffee industry. Because of its bitterness, Robusta is often used in instant coffee. Arabica, on the other hand, is often used for high-class coffee and coffee blends. It is also the preferred variety due to its mild and balanced flavor. In terms of production, coffee growers often plant more Arabica plants compared to Robusta plants.
The Arabica and Robusta beans’ appearances are also very different. Arabica beans are flat and elongated. They are deep green in color with a shaped crack. As a plant, the variety has 44 chromosomes, double of a Robusta bean. On the other hand, a Robusta bean is round and pale green. It has a straight-line crack.
Many people who are unfamiliar with coffee often mistake coffee beans and espresso beans.
Basically, there are authentic coffee beans but there are no exact espresso beans. This is because coffee beans produce both coffee and espresso. However, there is a difference, not in the beans, but in the method and preparation that results in two completely different products. Coffee beans are seeds of the coffee “cherry” that a coffee plant produces. There are usually two beans inside a cherry.
There is no basic difference between coffee beans and espresso beans. Coffee beans do exist, and they are beans from the coffee plant that can be used for either coffee or espresso production. “Espresso,” as a term, is used to describe a specific method and preparation for a particular type of coffee. An interpretation can used in this instance as “beans used for coffee production” and “beans used for espresso production.”
Coffee beans used for both coffee and espresso come from Arabica and Robusta. These types are often used together in different concentrations to make a particular blend. Beans used in making coffee are roasted for a time at a certain temperature. After roasting, they are given a coarse grind. Meanwhile, beans for espresso are roasted longer and at a higher temperature thereby releasing the oils and a more concentrated flavor. The roasted beans are further ground into a fine powder.
In Albania the most used type of coffee is the Turkish coffee, called like that only because it was introduced during the Ottoman times and it follows that method of preparation. In Greece they call it Greek coffee, but it is mainly the same method of preparation but a bit different in terms of Arabica and Robusta blend./AgroWeb.org